All-optical network (AON)

- Apr 18, 2019-

All-optical network (AON)

 

In the existing communication network based on the optical multiplexing technology, each node of the network needs to complete the optical/electrical/optical conversion, and still exchanges the speed of the electrical signal processing information, and the electronic components therein are adapted to the high speed. In the large-capacity demand, there are shortcomings such as bandwidth limitation, clock offset, severe crosstalk, high power consumption, etc., resulting in an "electronic bottleneck" phenomenon in the communication network. In order to solve this problem, the concept of all-optical network (AON) has been proposed. The so-called all-optical network means that the entire process of data transmission and exchange from the source node to the end user node is carried out in the optical domain, that is, the end-to-end complete optical path without the intervention of electrical signals in the middle.


In 2025, global 5G users will reach 2.8 billion, with a penetration rate of 58%


The all-optical network (AON All Optical Network) means that the signal is only converted into electricity/light and light/electricity when entering and leaving the network, and always exists in the form of light during transmission and exchange in the network. Because there is no electrical processing during the entire transmission process, various transmission methods such as PDH, SDH, and ATM can be used, which improves the utilization of network resources.

 

What is all-optical network

All-optical network [1] refers to all functions of directly completing network communication in the optical layer, that is, direct storage, transmission and exchange processing of signals directly in the optical domain, etc., in which the optical nodes replace the electrical nodes of the existing network with optical nodes, A direct fiber-optic communication network based on optical fiber, that is, a broadband network that uses optical wave technology to complete information transmission and exchange.

The information transmission, switching, and amplification in the all-optical network do not need to undergo photoelectric and electro-optical conversion, so it is not affected by the slow response of the electronic devices in the original network, and effectively solves the influence of the "electronic bottleneck". As far as the transparency of the signal is concerned, the all-optical network is completely transparent to the optical signal, that is, in the process of optical signal transmission, any network node does not process the customer information, and realizes transparent transmission of the customer information. The transparent transmission of information can make full use of the potential of optical fiber, making the bandwidth of the network almost inexhaustible. If a fiber uses n-way WDM, each with a 10Gb/s digital signal, the fiber transmission capacity will be n*10Gb/s, and the current translucent network greatly limits the potential of the fiber.

 

The advantages of all-optical networks

The all-optical network has greater throughput than the traditional telecommunication network, and has the advantages that the previous communication network and the current network are incomparable, which can be summarized as follows:

(1) In terms of structure, the all-optical network has a simple structure, and the end-to-end uses a transparent optical path link, which has no photoelectric conversion and storage along the way, thereby having great transmission capacity and good transmission quality.

(2) The all-optical network is characterized by openness. In the optical network, the routing method is wavelength-selective routing, which is compatible with different rates, protocols, modulation frequencies and standard signals, and is provided without limitation. End-to-end business.

(3) In the all-optical network, many optical components for optical signal processing are passive, which is beneficial to the maintenance of the network and can greatly improve the reliability of the network.

(4) For the extension of the all-optical network, the virtual wavelength channel technology can be used to directly expand the network without affecting the original network and equipment when adding new nodes, which greatly saves network resources and reduces network costs.

(5) The all-optical network has reconfigurability. The network can change the structure of the network according to different services. It can establish a direct optical channel for nodes with large traffic, and can realize flexible use of wavelengths and wavelengths at different nodes. Routing dynamic reconstruction, network interconnection, self-healing.

 

All-optical network security risks

(1) The management and monitoring system, optical components and optical cables of the all-optical network may also be damaged or malfunction, which may cause network paralysis and affect the transmission security.

(2) Like coaxial cables, unprotected fibers are also used by attackers, such as optical radiation signals generated by microbends. Although their power is relatively weak, they are sufficient for attackers to effectively attack.

(3) Since there are multiple wavelengths in the all-optical network for transmission, crosstalk between channels has a great impact on security issues.

(4) Due to the high data rate of the all-optical network, even a short attack can cause a large amount of data to be destroyed or decrypted.

(5) The all-optical network does not have the ability to reconstruct the data stream, and the transparent node cannot recognize the modulation and coding format of the signal. The segmentation test method that is practical for traditional networks is difficult to locate attacks and faults in all-optical networks.

 

All-optical network security measures

(21) All-optical network [2] Security measures for the optical layer. The first is protection. The second is attack detection. The third is to authenticate the user.

(2) Security measures for all-optical network information. The first is the digital encapsulation technology of all-optical networks. The second is the quantum code. The third is the quantum key.

 

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