Optical Fiber Amplifier
Optical Fiber Amplifier (OFA) refers to a new all-optical amplifier used in optical fiber communication lines for signal amplification. According to its position and role in the fiber line, it is generally divided into relay amplification, preamplification and power amplification. Compared with the traditional semiconductor laser amplifier (SOA), OFA does not need to undergo complex processes such as photoelectric conversion, electro-optical conversion and signal regeneration, and can directly perform full-light amplification of the signal, which has good "transparency" and is especially suitable for long-distance transmission. Relay amplification of optical communication. It can be said that OFA has laid a technical foundation for the realization of all-optical communication.
There are currently two main types of optical amplifiers: semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) and (OFA). The semiconductor optical amplifier utilizes the stimulated radiation amplification mechanism inherent in the semiconductor material to achieve optical amplification, and its principle and structure are similar to those of the semiconductor laser. A fiber amplifier is different from a semiconductor amplifier in that the active medium (or gain medium) of the fiber amplifier is a special fiber or transmission fiber and is connected to the pump laser; when the signal light passes through the fiber, the signal light is amplified. Fiber amplifiers can be further divided into Rare Earth Ion Doped Fiber Amplifiers and nonlinear fiber amplifiers. Like a semiconductor amplifier, the operating principle of a rare earth doped fiber amplifier is also stimulated radiation; and a nonlinear fiber amplifier amplifies the optical signal by the nonlinear effect of the fiber. Practical fiber amplifiers are erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) and Raman fiber amplifiers (Raman Fiber Amplifiers).
The fiber amplifier not only directly amplifies the optical signal, but also has real-time, high-gain, wide-band, online, low-noise, low-loss all-optical amplification, which is an indispensable key component in the new generation of fiber-optic communication systems; The technology not only solves the limitation of attenuation on optical network transmission rate and distance, but more importantly, it creates wavelength division multiplexing in the 1550nm frequency band, which will enable ultra-high speed, ultra-large capacity and ultra-long-distance wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). ), Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM), all-optical transmission, and optical soliton transmission have become a reality, and it is an epoch-making milestone in the history of optical fiber communication. In the current practical fiber amplifiers, there are mainly erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) and fiber Raman amplifiers (FRA). Among them, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are widely used for their long-term performance. Distance, high-capacity, high-speed fiber-optic communication systems, access networks, fiber-optic CATV networks, military systems (radar multi-channel data multiplexing, data transmission, guidance, etc.) as power amplifiers, relay amplifiers, and preamplifiers .
Fiber amplifiers are typically composed of a gain medium, pump light, and an input-output coupling structure. At present, fiber amplifiers mainly include three kinds of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, semiconductor optical amplifiers and fiber Raman amplifiers. According to their applications in optical fiber networks, fiber amplifiers mainly have three different purposes: as a power amplifier on the transmitter side to improve transmission. The power of the machine; the optical pre-amplifier is used before the receiver to greatly improve the sensitivity of the optical receiver; the relay amplifier is used as a relay amplifier in the optical fiber transmission line to compensate for the transmission loss of the optical fiber and prolong the transmission distance.
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