Single Mode Fiber
Single Mode Fiber: The center glass core is very thin (core diameter is usually 9 or 10 μm) and can only transmit one mode of fiber. Therefore, the dispersion between modules is very small, suitable for long-distance communication, but there is also material dispersion and waveguide dispersion, so the single-mode optical fiber has higher requirements on the spectral width and stability of the light source, ie, the spectral width should be narrow and stability should be good. Afterward, at a wavelength of 1.31 μm, the material dispersion and waveguide dispersion of the single-mode fiber were found to be positive, negative, and exactly the same size. In this way, the 1.31 μm wavelength region becomes a very ideal working window for optical fiber communication, and is also the main operating band of the current practical optical fiber communication system. The main parameters of the conventional single-mode optical fiber of 1.31 μm are proposed by the International Telecommunication Union ITU-T in G652, so this fiber is also called G652 fiber.
Single mode fiber can support longer transmission distances than multimode fiber. In 100Mbps Ethernet and even 1G gigabit network, single mode fiber can support transmission distances exceeding 5000m.
From the cost point of view, since the optical transceiver is very expensive, the cost of using single-mode optical fiber is higher than the cost of multi-mode optical fiber optical cable.
The refractive index profile is similar to that of a mutant optical fiber. The core diameter is only 8 to 10 μm, and the light propagates in a straight line along the central axis of the core. Because this type of fiber can only transmit one mode (two degenerate states of polarization), it is called a single-mode fiber and its signal distortion is small.
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